Zito (multiply. Grain) is the common name for the crops with the class but drew. Most of these plants, for example, rice, corn, wheat, oats, millet, barley and rye, botanically belongs to the grass family (Poaceae). Among the false grain can also be considered buckwheat, the botanically belongs to the family dresnovk (Polygonaceae). 
The word can also mean grain fruit of these plants. In journalism and increasingly talk is used in the sense plants and fruit grain used in Serbo-Croatian acquired (less relevant) word of cereals (the original meaning enakoglasne Slovenian language is 'a seller of grain').
The rich chemical composition, simple processing and storage options are an important grain for food, animal feed (industry). Wheat is the food industry as an ingredient for bread, for a variety of nutritional products such as breakfast cereals, etc.
The diet mostly used wheat (Triticum genus), rice (kind Orys), rye (Secale genus), barley (Hordeum genus), corn (Zea mays) and oat.Splits [edit | edit code]
Due to the extreme importance of cereals for mankind dealt with several already, and this leads to many possible grading methods, depending on the emphasis the professional field and placement into a time-frame of the local. Applies to botany as the basic science of plants most comprehensive covers properties such as grain crops, other sciences, but only partially, as the basis for classification does take just a few morphological and biological signs, but also that science can emphasize the features that are less relevant to botany. Agronomists grain share in the rights (wheat, barley, rye, oats) and prosasta (millet, maize, sorghum, Amaranth, quinoa).
Rights cereals (including cereal stubble or white ) germinate at temperatures above 0 ° C, require relatively high humidity, normal call having at least two prakoreninici, typically more than three, are distinct ible fertile and usually not more than six, was low in sugar, grain and is characterized by furrows and beard.  He was hollow. For hardening needs more water than grain prosasta, adult plants and due to lower transpiratornega coefficient lying tolerate drought. The rights apply to wheat grain temperate zone. 
Quasi-grain (also prosasta grain, so named because of its peculiar lata, like prosenemu) germinate at a higher temperature, usually ok. 8 ° C, have only one prakoreninico, ible knees fuzzy, and there are more than six, was high in sugars, grains and has no grooves and beard.  He was filled with the parenchyma tissue, for germination require relatively little water, for further growth and more. Prosasto grain February for warm corn belt.
Ajda due to specific morphological characteristics do not fall within any of the above groups, but the use is treated as quasi grain (psevdožito). 
With regard to crop rotation separating the grain, which can be planted in monocultures (corn, rye) and cereals for it more sensitive.
Their mode of rearing (cultural practices) are separated row crops (corn) and small grains (wheat rights), but that such sharing is locally-based and conservative, because in Slovenia corn hoe not more, on the other hand hoeing sometimes also small grains.
Depending on the purpose, strictly separating bread (wheat, rye) in nekrušna (slurried, fodder) cereals (barley, oats, millet, corn, buckwheat, rice). Also this division is not entirely accurate, since there are also bread to the share of other cereals, for example, rye bread, oat bread (ovsenjak), corn bread, buckwheat bread; In the past, the wheat flour is often mixed with rice, which was cheaper, in the lack of even the flour from the fruits of forest trees (chestnuts, acorns, whitebeam). The key is to bread flour contains a relatively high share of  gluten-rich wheat flour, which enables baking bread with the desired shape and rahlostjo.
Bread grains are those which have the most ground into flour, from which you can make dough for bread (wheat, rye); once it has often been a mixture of wheat and rye flour (meslin).
Nekrušna or slurried grains are those which do not grind, but only shed in the puree. From their hard flour dough, mix we have with bread flour. As nekrušna grain often used for feed, also known as forage. 
Description [edit | edit code]
Grain [edit | edit code]
Zito bears seeded fruit - grain (caryopsis but caryopses). In view of this, but the grain even after they fall off the plant, stick the chaff is separated plevasto grain but plevenec and naked (shank) grain but golec (also golenec, Golic). Grain consists of shell, meljak and germ. Grain from the outside with a protective shell, the thickness of which is dependent on growing conditions, but in principle, subject to the plevastih cultivars amounts to up to 40% by weight of grains in neplevastem but 10-15%. It consists of external and plodnične (pericarp) and internal or seed shells (test). Within the tests is to man a key part of the grain: the starch rich meljak (endosperm). The outer layer of the molars is called the aleurone layer, as it is composed of a plurality membranica with aleuron crystals. There is a lot of protein, enzymes (eg. For hardening important yeast diastasis) and colorants (pigment yellow xanthophyll, which gives the characteristic color of ripe grain). The interior consists of the molars starch grains, whose form is species specific. Meljak represents 80-90% of the grain weight. In monocots at Meljak one seed leaf, on the outside of the shields and others stunted (epiblast). On the lower abdominal side grain (primarily grain) is placed the germ, which is separated from the molars permeable membrane shield (ek) - a very important role mass transfer between an annealing. It is full of fats, enzymes, vitamins and amino acids. Germ is divided into prakorenin (c) of (radicula), prabil (co) (plumula) in Pralište but pranožnico (Alkaloid). All these of the organic form of the primary organs, Pralište protects prabil during germination, and then withdraw the real list. Germ is the smallest part of the grain: wheat, barley and rye is up to 3% (Tajnsek wheat states up to 5% ), with oats to 4%, 10-14% for maize grain weight.
Uploaded: Oct 18, 2015