Balloon (ital. Pallone, Father. Balloon) the aircraft spherical shape of lightweight materials (often a plastic, for example, nylon or polyester) filled with a gas lighter than air (hydrogen, helium) or warm with hot air. From time immemorial has been implanted in man unquenchable thirsts, so I can get up in the air level. The most suitable device for it was a balloon. Many were pioneers, trial and victims, and to reach the goal.
History balloon [edit VE | edit]
The first balloons appear in China in the 14th century. Italian physicist, Jesuit Francesco Lana Terzi, in 1670 first proposed the idea of the air boat, that floated in the air balloon, made of thin copper sheets. Although this project could not be realized, the idea of constructing lighter-than-air balloon was the basis for the further development of aerostatics. Physicist Gusmao presented in 1709 at the court of the Portuguese king device, which is up in the air combustion of some substance, which he set himself on fire. For this achievement they call it "flying man" (Volador), but the Spanish Inquisition condemning as wizard to exile, where he died. This first attempt proved that the rise of the balloon can only use the funds easier than air.
The French brothers Joseph and Etienne Montgolfier, constructed the first spherical balloon filled with hot air. The first experiments were carried out in 1783, and 5 July at the Annonavu and 19 September in Paris. Montgolfier brothers went to the glory of the inventor of the balloon. Pilatre de Rozier and the Marquis Arlandski first rose up in one "Montgolfier" of 2,000 m3 21 November 1783, which were filled with smoke burning straw. They got up close to 1,000 meters, flew over Paris, and in the descent is almost not burned. This is accomplished long desired dream, flying man in the air. With the invention of the hydrogen, which he discovered English physicist Cavendish in 1767, it was resolved the question of filling the balloon. French physicist Charles after many attempts, and using the new discovery dissolution rubber balloon is constructed of 380 m3 with a bulletproof jacket, which was filled with hydrogen and which had a gas exhaust valve. In this bubble was a special space to carry the ballast of sand. This is the balloon rose 1 December 1783 in Paris, achieved a height of 2900 we after two and a half hours down to 40 km away from the place where it took off. Charles balloon completely meet today's balloons. Finding the Montgolfier brothers had only historical significance, while the invention Charles was of practical value.
Uploaded: Oct 18, 2015