Храм Василија Блаженог (Saint Basil's Cathedral)

Храм Василија Блаженог (Saint Basil's Cathedral)

Ево једне слике са мог путовања, кроз Украјину, Белорусију и Русију и где сам посетијо Лепе цркве и манастире..
Храм Василија Блаженог
Храм Василија Блаженог (рус. Храм Василия Блаженного; првобитно: Покровский собор что на Рву) се налази на Црвеном тргу у Москви. Има карактеристичне шарене куполе.

Изградњу цркве је наручио цар Иван IV Грозни и била је грађена између 1555. и 1561. године као сећање на освајање Казанског каната. Цар Фјодор Иванович је 1588. додао капелу на источној страни изнад гроба Василија Блаженог, руског свеца по коме је црква названа. Црква се налази на југоисточном делу трга, преко пута куле Кремља Спаскаја. Црква је рађена по угледу на цркву у Коломескоју и на цркву у Ђакову.

У врту испред цркве се налазе бронзане статуе Дмитрија Пожарског и Кузме Минина који су ујединили руску добровољачку армију против пољских освајача у „Времену смутње“ у касном шеснаестом и раном седамнаестом веку. Статуа је првобитно била постављена у центру Црвеног трга, али је совјетска влада преместила на садашње место 1936, јер је ометала одржавање парада.

Првобитна идеја је била да се изграде густо збијене капеле, свака посвећена једном свецу на чији је дан цар добио битку. Међутим, све је обједињено у једну велику цркву. Легенда каже да је Иван Грозни ослепио неимара Постника Јаковљева како ни за кога више не би изградио овако лепу грађевину
The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed (Russian: Собор Василия Блаженного), commonly known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, is a church in Red Square in Moscow, Russia. The building, now a museum, is officially known as the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat (Russian: Собор Покрова пресвятой Богородицы, что на Рву) or Pokrovsky Cathedral (Russian: Покровский собор).[5] It was built from 1555–61 on orders from Ivan the Terrible and commemorates the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan. A world famous landmark[6][7] it was the city's tallest building until the completion of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in 1600.[8]

The original building, known as Trinity Church and later Trinity Cathedral, contained eight side churches arranged around the ninth, central church of Intercession; the tenth church was erected in 1588 over the grave of venerated local saint Vasily (Basil). In the 16th and 17th centuries the church, perceived as the earthly symbol of the Heavenly City,[9] as happens to all churches in Byzantine Christianity, was popularly known as the "Jerusalem" and served as an allegory of the Jerusalem Temple in the annual Palm Sunday parade attended by the Patriarch of Moscow and the tsar.[10]

The building is shaped as a flame of a bonfire rising into the sky,[11] a design that has no analogues in Russian architecture. Dmitry Shvidkovsky, in his book Russian Architecture and the West, states that "it is like no other Russian building. Nothing similar can be found in the entire millennium of Byzantine tradition from the fifth to fifteenth century ... a strangeness that astonishes by its unexpectedness, complexity and dazzling interleaving of the manifold details of its design."[12] The cathedral foreshadowed the climax of Russian national architecture in the 17th century.[13]

As part of the program of state atheism, the church was confiscated from the Russian Orthodox community as part of the Soviet Union's anti-theist campaigns and has operated as a division of the State Historical Museum since 1928.[14] It was completely and forcefully secularized in 1929[14] and remains a federal property of the Russian Federation. The church has been part of the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990.[15] It is often mislabelled as the Kremlin owing to its location on Red Square in immediate proximity of the Kremlin.[16]The site of the church had been, historically, a busy marketplace between the St. Frol's (later Saviour's) Gate of the Moscow Kremlin and the outlying posad. The centre of the marketplace was marked by the Trinity Church, built of the same white stone as the Kremlin of Dmitry Donskoy (1366–68) and its cathedrals. Tsar Ivan IV marked every victory of the Russo-Kazan War by erecting a wooden memorial church next to the walls of Trinity Church; by the end of his Astrakhan campaign, it was shrouded within a cluster of seven wooden churches. According to the sketchy report in Nikon's Chronicle, in the autumn of 1554 Ivan ordered construction of the wooden Church of Intercession on the same site, "on the moat".[17] One year later, Ivan ordered construction of a new stone cathedral on the site of Trinity Church that would commemorate his campaigns. Dedication of a church to a military victory was "a major innovation"[12] for Muscovy. The placement of the church outside of the Kremlin walls was a political statement in favour of posad commoners and against hereditary boyars.[18]

Contemporary commentators clearly identified the new building as Trinity Church, after its easternmost sanctuary;[17] the status of "sobor" (large assembly church) has not been bestowed on it yet:

On the Trinity on the Moat in Moscow.
In the same year, through the will of czar and lord and grand prince Ivan began making the pledged church, as he promised for the capture of Kazan: Trinity and Intercession and seven sanctuaries, also called "on the moat". And the builder was Barma with company.

— Piskaryov Chronicle, 1560 (7068 per Byzantine calendar)[19]
The identity of the architect is unknown.[20] Tradition held that the church was built by two architects, Barma and Postnik:[20][21] the official Russian cultural heritage register lists "Barma and Postnik Yakovlev".[2] Researchers proposed that both names refer to the same person, Postnik Yakovlev[21] or, alternatively, Ivan Yakovlevich Barma (Varfolomey).[20] Legend held that Ivan blinded the architect so that he could not re-create the masterpiece elsewhere,[22][23] although the real Postnik Yakovlev remained active at least throughout the 1560s.[24] There is evidence that construction involved stonemasons from Pskov[25] and German lands.[26] According to the legend, Ivan had ordered Postnik Yakovlev's eyes removed.[27][28]

Uploaded: Sep 24, 2015

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Tags: Saint, Basil's, Cathedral, Red, Square, Moscow, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Vladimir, Putin, Ivan, IV

published 2 years ago



posted 2 years ago

Феноменално !